*

Gives access to the anglophone version of the site's homepage.

Gives access to the basic information of the site, to the history of the Shroud as well as to the study of the cloth.

Gives access to the images on the Shroud, their macroscopic analysis and, when necessary, complementary studies.

Gives the main conclusions that can be drawn from the study of the Shroud : the definite, the uncertain, the hypotheses.

Reconstruction of the Passion of Jesus in the light of the Gospels and of the observations derived from the study of the Shroud.

Shows the page before the one you are reading, if you were reading a book it would take you back a page.

Gives an outline of the methods used in this study of the Shroud.

.Gives a survey not only of the Shroud but also of other important relics : Holy tunic of Argenteuil, Shroud of Oviédo...

Gives access to the study of the cloth of the Shroud ( manufacture, technical details).

Shows the page that follows the one you are reading, as if you were turning over the page of a book.

Gives access to pages containing complementary information about the Shroud. .

Click on FAQ to access the frequently asked questions forum, and on MAJ to find the latest pages.

.

gives access to the Table of contents of the site, from which you can access each chapter.

 

Historical study of the Shroud
Historical study of Jesus and the Gospels

HISTORY                                                         Gives access to the glossary where are some definitions of the main terms used in this study and which deserve some additional explanations.

 

                   

In the history of the Shroud there is a pivotal date, 1357, the year when the Shroud is first mentioned, at Lirey, in the Champagne region of France. Since that date the history of the Shroud has been continuously known, and can be summed up as follows.

  • From 1357 to 1418, at Lirey, Champagne, France
  • From 1418 to 1452, at Saint Hippolyte-sur-Doubs
  • From 1452 to 1454, at Chambery
  • From 1454 to 1578, it was on display successively in Saint Hippolyte-sur-Doubs, Liège, Germolles, Vercelli, Chambery, Bourg-en-Bresse, Chambery, Turin, Milan, Vercelli, and Chambery.
  • Since 1578, it has been kept at Turin in Italy.

  To know more on the general history

So, since 1357, the continuous history of the Shroud is known with certainty, but what about before 1357 ?

         Miniature of  the Codex Pray

On this photo of the Calvary painting in the Codex Pray, two areas have been highlighted (in violet and green). These two areas are enlarged opposite, as well as the corresponding places on the Turin Shroud. The marks are those left by scorching prior to 1200. The correspondence between the two is not due to chance.

Does this mean that the history of the Shroud is totally unknown before 1357? No, not quite : for conserved in the National Library of Budapest is an illuminated manuscript book known as the Codex Pray. This has been dated with precision to between 1192 and 1195. A number of experts believe that the shroud shown in a painting in this book is the Holy Shroud which is at Turin today. It shows the anointing of the body of Christ as he was being wrapped in the Shroud, and, it shows the discovery of the empty Shroud by Mary Magdalene on Easter morning after the Crucifixion. On this shroud, in 1986, Doctor Yves Cartigny  as seen clearly  the inverted L which are marks of the fire that had damaged the "Turin" Shroud at some unknown date prior to 1357. If these experts are correct, then this would confirm that the "Turin" Shroud is earlier than 1195, and so too was the fire that damaged it.

the violet highlight localises on the Shroud the same scorch marks that can be seen in violet highlighted area of the Pray Codex painting. They are situated to the right of the body. (2314 bytes)

the green highlight localises on the Shroud the same scorch marks that can be seen in the green highlighted area of the Pray Codex painting. They are situated on the right side of the body, whose back can be seen here. (3644 bytes)

 

 

Detail from the miniature painting, in the Codex Pray

Enlargement of the coloured part of the illuminated manuscript of the Codex Pray. In each highlighted area can be clearly seen little circles drawn by the artist ( 4 in the violet stain, 5 in the green stain) without any artistic justification. Moreover, the artist represented on the front of the Shroud the traces which are on the front of the body and on the back of the Shroud those that can be found on the back of the body. (9887 bytes)

Apart from the 4 round marks shown here (forming an inverted L), notice the chevron shapes on the fabric, which are highlighted by the violet mark

Enlargement of the violet highlighted area on the Codex Pray painting. Enlargement of the violet highlighted area on the Shroud to bring to the fore the traces of scorching on the front.

Enlargement of the green highlighted area on the Shroud. It shows the scorch marks.

Enlargement of the green highlighted area on the Codex Pray.

For more information on the fire go to the page :"Traces of burns"

The four round marks aligned in an L-shape on the front part of the Shroud in the miniature painting have no reason to be there as a representation of the fabric. They probably represent real marks on the Shroud, and are identical to the marks on the front sector of the Shroud at Turin. They probably result from the burns that date back to an unknown date before 1195

The same thing can be said about the 5 round marks above. On this enlargement of the miniature painting, they have been highlighted pink, to be more visible. These marks, which can be found on the back face of the Shroud, and also on the Shroud shown in the Codex Pray, are apparently the same.

X
                    Several theories exist, about the history of the Shroud before 1357. The most intriguing is that the Shroud is identical to the Mandylion. The main points in this account are :
  • From 30 to 57 : There are stories that a "portrait of Jesus" existed at this time in Edessa, an ancient upper Mesopotamian city. (Known to the Greeks as Edessa. Today it is called Urfa, and is in south eastern Turkey, east of the Euphrates River. The Turks renamed it Urfa in the 15th century). In one version of this story, the original "portrait" was an "image of Jesus" on a cloth. This cloth was kept and revered, and an icon painting was copied from it.
  • In 57, Ma'nu VI persecuted the Christians. The said "portrait" disappears, apparently hidden, to protect it.
  • In 525 there was a major flood at Edessa. During reconstruction work, the "portrait" was found hidden within the thickness of a wall. At some point in its history it becomes known as the Mandylion
  • In August 944, the Mandylion arrives at Constantinople.
  • Around 1025, a portrait is known that resembles the Holy Shroud.
  • 12th April 1204, Crusaders sack the city of Constantinople, and the Mandylion disappears.
  • In 1357, the Shroud is on display at Lirey.

     

      This theory is attractive for many reasons, but it is still only a theory. The historians must be left to research and debate the history before 1357, and, eventually we hope, shed light on that period of its history. We will continue with the elements that are verifiable.

Shows the page before the one you are reading, if you were reading a book it would take you back a page.

top.gif (1293 octets)

Shows the page that follows the one you are reading, as if you were turning over the page of a book.