Calendar of the Passion or Chronology of the Passion : The tradition is that the Passion of Jesus started on Thursday evening and ended on Friday afternoon. Some believe that this period is too short for all the events mentioned in the Gospels to be fitted in. Others have noticed divergences, even opposition, between some of the events mentioned.

To know more about the calendar

Coloration : What is the origin of the colour of the image? It is mainly due to the dehydration and the oxidation of cellulose, the organic macro-molecule of which linen is composed.
FAQ, Frequently Asked Questions : On the original French language version of this web site, this is "Forum Aux Questions". Both titles are self evident -- they are answers to the most frequently asked questions. e.g covering points where the subject was incompletely dealt with in the text, or the answer unclear because it was scattered over several web pages.
Glossary : gives a definition of the main terms used in this study and which deserve some additional explanations.

Gives access to the glossary where are some definitions of the main terms used in this study and which deserve some additional explanations.

Historical study of the Gospels : This is based on the manuscripts that are available to us, on the language they were written in, on the time they were written, on the concordance between these manuscripts, and on all other relevant historical manuscripts available. Archaeology too, and all its scientific tools, serve to support, or question, the written word.

To know more about the datation of the Gospels

Hours of the day : For us, our day starts at midnight, and finishes 24 hours later at midnight. Each day is divided into 24 hours whose length is absolutely constant throughout the year. In the Holy Land, amongst the Jews at the time of Jesus, a day began at sunset, and ended the next day at sunset. Each day was divided into two, the night (from sunset to sunrise), and the day (from sunrise to sunset). Each night and each day were divided into 12 hours. In such a system, the length of an hour varied.

To know more about the hours of the day at the time of Jesus

Judaism : At the time of Jesus, in fact since the time of the rebellion of the Maccabees (166-160BC), there existed three important religious factions in Judaism: The Pharisees, very attached to the written law (sometimes even more to the letter, than to the spirit of it : an over-enthusiasm which Jesus frequently reproached them with). The Sadducees, who held higher priestly functions, particularly those of a higher political and financial nature. And the Essenes, who have become far better known since the discovery of the Qumran site (Dead Sea Scrolls), and who seem to have formed an ascetic community that was attached to living in respect of the letter and spirit of the law).
Nailing to the Cross : There were two ways of doing this : tying the person to be executed onto the cross with cords; or nailing through the hands and feet. (Hands in the wider meaning, as explained elsewhere in the text). As far as the feet are concerned, in 1968, the bones of a young man of the first century were found in a tomb in the close vicinity of Jerusalem, at the Giv'at ha Mitvar site. This boy, whose name was Jehohanan, had had his feet nailed to a cross with a single 17 cm (7 inch) nail, which had gone through both of his calcanei (heel bones) laid flat, one against the other. This suggests that his legs were folded to one side, parallel to each other. This procedure involves penetration and/or smashing of the two heel bones. The least movement of the body in this contorted position, to support itself on these broken bones, would cause paroxysms of intense pain.
Nothing in the marks on the Shroud suggests that Jesus was nailed through the calcanei. His legs are in line with the body, his feet are extended and crossed. The "blood" visible on the part of the Shroud that corresponds with the heels comes from the nail wound a little higher, in the middle of the tarsus. The wound that is visible under the right heel does not correspond at all to the position of the nail holes on Jehohanan's heels.
To go to the text concerning the marks of the nailing of the feet, click here.

Site Update History : (MAJ in French). This item catalogues the modifications made to the site, and contains links to the pages modified.
Tridimensionality : This coined word, indicates the property that the image on the Shroud has of being represented in three dimensions. What is visible to the eye is a conventional representation of the image in two dimensions, like in a painting, drawing or photo, but, by using an optical brightness metre on the image, computing has been used to convert the light values obtained into a three dimensional model of the body that the Shroud contained.

To know more about the tridimensionality of the image

Web Browser information : This site was created using Microsoft Front Page, a tool, which like most computer internet applications, has its share of quirks and idiosyncrasies. Amongst them is Microsoft's often-reported tendency to use bits of code that do not always work seamlessly with competing browsers from other companies. If you use Microsoft Internet Explorer as your web browser to view this site, everything should look as it was laid out. If you use Netscape Navigator, or one of the other browsers, you will probably find that there is some minor reformatting of the page, or (and this is worse), that certain links or other functions do not work properly. If this happens to the point of being an inconvenience to you, then using another browser, or a later version of the one you have, may solve the problem.
To get a full screen display, you can reduce the tool bar of Internet Explorer. Instructions are in the menu bar at the top of the screen, probably under "View", but this varies depending on what country you are in, and what language your browser / operating system is written in. On some computers you can do this through the F keys. F11 works on my computer, but it is perhaps prudent to AVOID using any of the F keys on your keyboard unless you know EXACTLY what they have been programmed to do.

Different computer operating systems may put small windows and dialogue boxes on the screen that get in the way. Each operating system has its own procedures for hiding them. You may need to refer to your Owner's Manual for this.
Quite often, to give coherence to the text, I used a normal font for the main text, and a smaller font for the quotations. If you have difficulty reading the smaller font, try printing the page on paper. It is often much clearer on paper. Or, you can usually enlarge the text on screen. In the toolbar of the navigator, there will be a path similar to : "View?", Text/Font size". Note that the page layout will be altered by this operation, but you can always go back to the original layout by reversing the procedure.