FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Calendar of the Passion or Chronology of the Passion : The tradition is that the Passion of Jesus started on Thursday evening and ended on Friday afternoon. Some believe that this period is too short for all the events mentioned in the Gospels to be fitted in. Others have noticed divergences, even opposition, between some of the events mentioned.
|Coloration : What is the origin of the colour of the image? It is mainly due to the dehydration and the oxidation of cellulose, the organic macro-molecule of which linen is composed.|
|FAQ, Frequently Asked
Questions : On the original French language
version of this web site, this is "Forum Aux Questions". Both titles are self
evident -- they are answers to the most frequently asked questions. e.g covering points
where the subject was incompletely dealt with in the text, or the answer unclear because
it was scattered over several web pages.
|Glossary : gives a definition of the main terms used in this study and which deserve some additional explanations.|
|Historical study of the Gospels : This is based on the manuscripts that are available to us, on the language they were written in, on the time they were written, on the concordance between these manuscripts, and on all other relevant historical manuscripts available. Archaeology too, and all its scientific tools, serve to support, or question, the written word.|
|Hours of the day : For us, our day starts at midnight, and finishes 24 hours later at midnight. Each day is divided into 24 hours whose length is absolutely constant throughout the year. In the Holy Land, amongst the Jews at the time of Jesus, a day began at sunset, and ended the next day at sunset. Each day was divided into two, the night (from sunset to sunrise), and the day (from sunrise to sunset). Each night and each day were divided into 12 hours. In such a system, the length of an hour varied.|
: At the time of Jesus, in fact since the time of the
rebellion of the Maccabees (166-160BC), there existed three important religious factions
in Judaism: The Pharisees, very attached to the written law (sometimes even more to the
letter, than to the spirit of it : an over-enthusiasm which Jesus frequently reproached
them with). The Sadducees, who held higher priestly functions, particularly those of a
higher political and financial nature. And the Essenes, who have become far better known
since the discovery of the Qumran site (Dead Sea Scrolls), and who seem to have formed an
ascetic community that was attached to living in respect of the letter and spirit of the
to the Cross : There were two ways of doing this :
tying the person to be executed onto the cross with cords; or nailing through the hands
and feet. (Hands in the wider meaning, as explained elsewhere in the text). As far as the
feet are concerned, in 1968, the bones of a young man of the first century were found in a
tomb in the close vicinity of Jerusalem, at the Giv'at ha Mitvar site. This boy, whose
name was Jehohanan, had had his feet nailed to a cross with a single 17 cm (7 inch) nail,
which had gone through both of his calcanei (heel bones) laid flat, one against the other.
This suggests that his legs were folded to one side, parallel to each other. This
procedure involves penetration and/or smashing of the two heel bones. The least movement
of the body in this contorted position, to support itself on these broken bones, would
cause paroxysms of intense pain.
Nothing in the marks on the Shroud suggests that Jesus was nailed through the calcanei. His legs are in line with the body, his feet are extended and crossed. The "blood" visible on the part of the Shroud that corresponds with the heels comes from the nail wound a little higher, in the middle of the tarsus. The wound that is visible under the right heel does not correspond at all to the position of the nail holes on Jehohanan's heels.
To go to the text concerning the marks of the nailing of the feet, click here.
Update History : (MAJ in French). This item catalogues
the modifications made to the site, and contains links to the pages modified.
|Tridimensionality : This coined word, indicates the property that the image on the Shroud has of being represented in three dimensions. What is visible to the eye is a conventional representation of the image in two dimensions, like in a painting, drawing or photo, but, by using an optical brightness metre on the image, computing has been used to convert the light values obtained into a three dimensional model of the body that the Shroud contained.|
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