|The upper limbs|
|The lower limbs|
|At first sight :
Blood running in the hair and on the forehead.
With a little attention :
In observing carefully :
Swelling of both eyebrows.
|In the hair, especially at the back, we can see many thick streaks of blood, which all seem to stop along the same line, almost horizontal, as if they had met an obstacle. On the front of the head we can see a big clot (in the area coloured green on the image). It starts at the limit of the hair, goes down to the left eyebrow, where it stops, and then continues on the eyebrow. It is blood from a vein, slow flowing, and caused by the rupture of a frontal vein. On the right, another clot, (in the part coloured blue) also starts at the limit of the hair, and goes down on the hair in two distinct straight streaks. It is the trace of the puncturing or breaking of the right frontal artery, which runs thinly, with pulsations, and which sent a small jet of blood some distance. Left, many small clots disseminated on the hair and forehead. We notice that here again, the traces stop along a horizontal line, situated just above the eyebrows. Everything occurs as if the head had been bound with a tight, circular head-band.|
Scalp wounds always bleed abundantly, so we are obviously faced with a scattering of numerous wounds, and not one widespread wound of the scalp which would have produced a wider streak of blood. This scattering of wounds can be found all over the scalp, but they spare the face and the nape of the neck. Let's remember that the discovery of double circulation of the arteries and veins dates back only to the start of the 17th century, and no artist of the middle ages would have known this, so could one have painted blood streaks so meticulously, and faithful to physio-pathology.
The right end of the moustache, and part of the beard, also on the right, are missing. They were probably torn off.
The right cheekbone is bruised, the skin scraped off, the ridge of the nose swollen at the level of the cartilages. The cartilages had probably been broken. The two eyebrows are prominent and bruised.
Taken together these wounds indicate that the man in the Shroud had been a victim of physical abuse. He had received several violent blows to his face from fists or a stick. According to Judica this would correspond to a stick of 4 to 5 cms diameter coming from the right hand side. Part of the man's beard and moustache had been torn off. The wounds, in particular, that to the artery, were inflicted while the victim was alive (Just after death the arteries empty themselves). It is therefore impossible to believe that a forger had used a dead body (which had died under other circumstances) to create the image on the Shroud.