|The upper limbs|
|The lower limbs|
There is no shortage of publications on the topic, but let us mention three of them.
Yves Delage, professor of comparative anatomy at the Sorbonne, gave a scientific paper to l'Acadamie des Sciences, on the 21st April 1902. This agnostic concluded that the visible image was indeed that of Christ.
Pierre Barbet, a French surgeon, took up the anatomic study in 1930. He published his conclusions in 1935 in "The 5 wounds of Christ" and, in 1950, in "The Passion of Jesus Christ according to a surgeon".
Giovanni Judica Cordiglia, professor of forensic medicine at the faculty of Milan, published in 1961 an anthropometric description of the man in the Shroud. Height 1m 81cm, weight 77 kilos, Body characteristics similar to classical Mediterranean type, Age between 30 and 40. Outward aspects : beard, long hair gathered in a pony tail that hung between his shoulder blades.
These three doctors, whose competence no-one questioned, are positive about one point. No detail found in the course of the study of the Shroud is in contradiction with the medical evidence known at the time of their enquiry. Moreover the anatomo-pathological and physio-pathological details which abound on the Shroud are in perfect conformity with what we know today that was mostly unknown in 1357.
The image is therefore of a dead white man, of middle age for his times, about 1.80 metres tall, well built, with long hair, beard and moustache. We know that the Romans shaved their faces, and that the Jews had been wearing a beard and long hair since at least the time of Moses. They only shaved their beard as a sign of mourning.
An interesting detail is that at the back, the hair hangs down to the bottom of the shoulder blades, giving the impression that it is in a pony tail, tied low. Now, this is a detail which was never represented in any image of Christ, and which only came to be known at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1920, Gressman showed that this was a custom that was frequent among the Jews in antiquity, and Daniel-Rops states that, except for festive days, the Jews used to wear this pony-tail plaited and pinned round their head under their headgear.
This man can be seen lying on his back, with his head slightly bent forward, his arms in front of him with his hands crossed on his pubis, his knees slightly bent, his feet crossed and hyper-extended. This is a body in rigor mortis.