Adduction : movement of a member of the body, or segment of a member, towards the median axis of the body. It is the opposite to abduction.
Anatomopathology : study of structural modifications of body organs caused by their ailments, traumatisms and diseases.
Blood serum : when the blood coagulates, a liquid called serum runs from the clot, This serum has the same composition as plasma, except that the fibrinogen has been transformed into Fibrin and remains in the clot
Calendar of the Passion or Chronology of the Passion : The tradition is that the Passion of Jesus started on Thursday evening and ended on Friday afternoon. Some believe that this period is too short for all the events mentioned in the Gospels to be fitted in. Others have noticed divergences, even opposition, between some of the events mentioned.
Codex Pray : manuscript, dated around 1192-1195, now kept in the library of Budapest. It has been studied by Yvonne BONGERT and Professor Jerome LEJEUNE
Coloration : What is the origin of the colour of the image? It is mainly due to the dehydration and the oxidation of cellulose, the organic macro-molecule of which linen is composed.
Constantinople : Formerly Byzantium. Now called Istanbul, and the capital of Turkey. The Mandylion was transferred there on the 15 August 944, and disappeared on the 12th April 1204, when the city was sacked and pillaged by Crusaders
Contused wounds : rupture of the whole thickness of the skin, giving a wound with irregular edges
Contusion : trauma which does not result in breaking of the skin, therefore no external bleeding, but with internal bleeding causing bruises, or haematoma (small blood masses), in the sub-cutaneous organs.
Cuneiform(s) : wedge shaped bone in the anterior row of the tarsus
Edessa : old name for the town of Urfa in present day Turkey. An image, known as the Image of Edessa, was known here from 525AD, and revered for several centuries as a portrait of Jesus Christ. Many believe that this image and the Mandylion were one and the same. The Mandylion was transferred to Constantinople 15 Aug 944
Excoriation : grazing, abrasion, or flaying of the skin which lays open the derme, and results in bleeding
FAQ, Frequently asked questions : On the original French language version of this web site, this is "Forum Aux Questions". Both titles are self evident -- they are answers to the most frequently asked questions. e.g covering points where the subject was incompletely dealt with in the text, or the answer unclear because it was scattered over several web pages
Flagrum : Short handled Roman whip, with two or three lashes usually terminated with small lead weights or mutton bones
Haemoglobin : conjugated protein, consisting of haem and the protein globin. Haem is a complex organic red pigment containing iron and porphyrin. (It is haem which gives red blood cells their characteristic colour). Haemoglobin combines reversibly with oxygen, and is essential for the transportation of oxygen by the blood to the muscles and tissues.
Haemorrhage : Profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels. It can come from an artery (the blood flowing in pulsing jets), from a vein (the blood flowing regularly to form a layer or pool), or from a capillary ( a drop of blood appears, growing slowly.
Historical study of the Gospels : This is based on the manuscripts that are available to us, on the language they were written in, on the time they were written, on the concordance between these manuscripts, and on all other relevant historical manuscripts available. Archaeology too, and all its scientific tools, serve to support, or question, the written word.
Hours of the day : For us, our day starts at midnight, and finishes 24 hours later at midnight. Each day is divided into 24 hours whose length is absolutely constant throughout the year. In the Holy Land, amongst the Jews at the time of Jesus, a day began at sunset, and ended the next day at sunset. Each day was divided into two, the night (from sunset to sunrise), and the day (from sunrise to sunset). Each night and each day were divided into 12 hours. In such a system, the length of an hour varied.
Hypertext link : (In computing) An icon, word, or text phrase on a web page which has a "button" or computer instruction hidden behind it. (Such words are often coloured blue and underlined). Normally the instruction is "Go to new location at (address)". Clicking on a hypertext link takes the reader to the specified new location. The new location can be on the same computer or on another computer, and can be on the same page, or another page on the same web site, or on a completely different web site at the far end of the world
Irritations : abrasions superficielles de la peau, n'entraînant pas de saignement mais laissant sourdre une sérosité transparente ou légèrement rosée.
Judaism : At the time of Jesus, in fact since the time of the rebellion of the Maccabees (166-160BC), there existed three important religious factions in Judaism: The Pharisees, very attached to the written law (sometimes even more to the letter, than to the spirit of it : an over-enthusiasm which Jesus frequently reproached them with). The Sadducees, who held higher priestly functions, particularly those of a higher political and financial nature. And the Essenes, who have become far better known since the discovery of the Qumran site (Dead Sea Scrolls), and who seem to have formed an ascetic community that was attached to living in respect of the letter and spirit of the law).
Lepton : small Roman coin of low monetary value
Lirey : small town in Champagne, France, and the seat of the de Charny family. The Shroud was stored here and known to be on show from 1357 to 1418. After 1418 it was held, and available for pilgrims to venerate, in several towns : Liège, Besançon, Bourg-en-Bresse, Chambéry, Turin, Milan ...
Mandylion : veil covered with a gold grid, with a round hole in the centre through which could be seen the head of a bearded man, similar to that of the Turin Shroud. Many researchers suspect that the Mandylion and Turin Shroud are one and the same.
Monochrome : single colour corresponding to an extremely narrow band of spectral wavelength.
Nailing to the Cross : There were two ways of doing this : tying the person to be executed onto the cross with cords; or nailing through the hands and feet. (Hands in the wider meaning, as explained elsewhere in the text). As far as the feet are concerned, in 1968, the bones of a young man of the first century were found in a tomb in the close vicinity of Jerusalem, at the Giv'at ha Mitvar site. This boy, whose name was Jehohanan, had had his feet nailed to a cross with a single 17 cm (7 inch) nail, which had gone through both of his calcanei (heel bones) laid flat, one against the other. This suggests that his legs were folded to one side, parallel to each other. This procedure involves penetration and/or smashing of the two heel bones. The least movement of the body in this contorted position, to support itself on these broken bones, would cause paroxysms of intense pain.
Nothing in the marks on the Shroud suggests that Jesus was nailed through the calcanei. His legs are in line with the body, his feet are extended and crossed. The "blood" visible on the part of the Shroud that corresponds with the heels comes from the nail wound a little higher, in the middle of the tarsus. The wound that is visible under the right heel does not correspond at all to the position of the nail holes on Jehohanan's heels.
To go to the text concerning the marks of the nailing of the feet, click here.
Nisan : First month of the Jewish royal and church year, and 7th month of the civil year. It corresponds to March/April in our calendar. (see J. Genot-Bismuth : Un homme nommé Salut)
oedema : swelling in the tissues caused by retention of water and salts
Passover : first pilgrimage of the Jewish church year which takes place between the 14th and 22nd of Nisan. The Jewish festival commemorating the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. See Exodus 12, 12-13 ... (God said ) For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and I will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast .... And when I see the blood (of the lambs that the Israelites had painted on their doorposts to mark their own dwellings) I will PASS OVER you, and the plague shall not be upon you, to destroy you ...
Photo negative : the sensitive surface of a photographic film is composed of light-sensitive silver salts distributed in an emulsion. Photons of light, hitting these, change their chemical structure and optical characteristics. Absence of light gives no change, so the silver salts are unchanged. When the light is in the form of a pattern or image, this is transferred to the film as chemical changes in the emulsion layer. Subsequent immersion of the exposed film in a bath of chemicals converts the light-changed silver salts to metallic silver, but also dissolves and washes away the unchanged silver salts. The result is an image on the film, but it is an optically inverted image, i.e. what was light appears dark, and vice versa. This new, inverted image is called a photo negative. This negative can now be used as an optical filter to recreate the original image. The negative is placed on or above a sheet of photo paper (itself coated in silver salts), and briefly exposed to the light. The dark areas in the negative shade the paper beneath it, producing light areas on the photo, and the light areas in the negative let the light through, producing dark areas on the photo.
Pia (Secondo) : Italian amateur photographer, who was designated by King Umberto 1 of Italy to take the first photo of the Shroud (28 May 1898)
Pronation : turning the forearm or hand or foot, so that the palm or surface faces downwards or inwards. The opposite of pronation is supination.
Rigor mortis : phenomenon which occurs gradually after death, and results in a stiffening of the muscles as they lose their elasticity. It is due to the coagulation of the muscular protein called Myosin
Scaphoid : alternative word for Navicular, a small, boat-shaped bone of the wrist or foot. In the middle row of the Tarsus it articulates at its back with the astragal bone , and in front with the cuneiforms, and on the side with the cuboid bone
Site Update History : (MAJ in French). This item catalogues the modifications made to the site, and contains links to the pages modified.
Strabismus : lack of convergence of vision from the two eyes upon a fixed point. Strabismus can be convergent or divergent.
Synoptics : term used to refer to the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. They have such close similarities that, when laid out in three parallel columns, it is possible to see at one glance (the meaning of synoptic) how close the narrative of each gospel is to the other two.
Tridimensionality : This coined word, indicates the property that the image on the Shroud has of being represented in three dimensions. What is visible to the eye is a conventional representation of the image in two dimensions, like in a painting, drawing or photo, but, by using an optical brightness metre on the image, computing has been used to convert the light values obtained into a three dimensional model of the body that the Shroud contained.
Tumefaction : increase in the volume of some part of the body (e.g. skin, muscle, tendon...)
Urfa :Town in Turkey formerly called Edessa (see Edessa).
Web Browser information : This site was created using Microsoft Front Page, a tool, which like most computer internet applications, has its share of quirks and idiosyncrasies. Amongst them is Microsoft's often-reported tendency to use bits of code that do not always work seamlessly with competing browsers from other companies. If you use Microsoft Internet Explorer as your web browser to view this site, everything should look as it was laid out. If you use Netscape Navigator, or one of the other browsers, you will probably find that there is some minor reformatting of the page, or (and this is worse), that certain links or other functions do not work properly. If this happens to the point of being an inconvenience to you, then using another browser, or a later version of the one you have, may solve the problem.
To get a full screen display, you can reduce the tool bar of Internet Explorer. Instructions are in the menu bar at the top of the screen, probably under "View", but this varies depending on what country you are in, and what language your browser / operating system is written in. On some computers you can do this through the F keys. F11 works on my computer, but it is perhaps prudent to AVOID using any of the F keys on your keyboard unless you know EXACTLY what they have been programmed to do.
Different computer operating systems may put small windows and dialogue boxes on the screen that get in the way. Each operating system has its own procedures for hiding them. You may need to refer to your Owner's Manual for this.
Quite often, to give coherence to the text, I used a normal font for the main text, and a smaller font for the quotations. If you have difficulty reading the smaller font, try printing the page on paper. It is often much clearer on paper. Or, you can usually enlarge the text on screen. In the toolbar of the navigator, there will be a path similar to : "View?", Text/Font size". Note that the page layout will be altered by this operation, but you can always go back to the original layout by reversing the procedure.